If you own a road disc bike, you may be looking for that one all-around, carbon disc wheelset that performs well across a wide range of terrain. It’s a fair bit of work to sort through all of those out there now because, along with the rapid growth of road disc bikes, there’s been a quick evolution of carbon wheels for those bikes.

The latest generation of all-around carbon road disc wheels are faster, more comfortable, and do more things well on a wider range of terrain than the best rim brake wheels and many of the earlier disc brake ones ever did.

In this post, I’ll take you through the rapid evolution of road disc wheelsets, give you my ratings and reviews of models from 10 leading wheelset makers against the criteria that matter most when choosing one, and recommend the Best Performer wheelsets.

Related: The Best Aero Bike Wheels

Related: The Best Lightweight Wheels for Climbing 

Related: How To Choose The Right Wheels For You

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Zipp 454 NSW Carbon Disc Wheelset

If you don’t want to pick between wheels that would be fast on flats vs. on rolling hills vs. on climbs or in a training ride vs. a group ride, road race, or crit, I recommend the latest Zipp 454 NSW Tubeless Disc-brake wheelset. It will be fast on all those and the fastest around on many of them.

At US$4000/£3200/3600, it better be.

It’s a stiff, deep (54.5 to 58.5mm), and light (1378 grams) wheelset. Those three attributes along with the 454 NSW’s quick engaging rear hub make it so responsive that it redefines the term “snappy.”

It’s available using these links to Competitive CyclistTweeksTredz (10% off with code ITKTDZ10) stores I recommended and rate highly for their prices, customer satisfaction, and support.

Read my full review here.


ENVE Carbon Disc Wheelset

The ENVE SES 4.5 AR excels on nearly as many performance criteria as the Zipp 454 NSW but costs a lot less if you are paying in US Dollars.

It’s also a better bet if you also want one wheelset for both paved roads and those long flat and rolling gravel ones.

It’s available using these links to Competitive Cyclist and JensonUSA.

Read my full review here.



Click on any red statement below to go directly to that part of the post

Carbon disc wheelsets are now in their 4th generation

A handful of performance criteria matter most when choosing between different wheelsets

Compare wheelset performance ratings, prices, and specs

Why I may not have included wheelsets you’ve heard about in this review



We’re now seeing a 4th generation of the evolution of carbon disc wheelsets. What started as modifications of rim brake wheels is becoming the only new carbon wheelset choice you have.

While it’s still early in this latest generation and most carbon disc wheelsets available to us enthusiasts are 3rd generation ones, the 4th generation of wider, lighter, tubeless-only, and hookless rims are upon us.

Many of the latest generation wheelsets will also be less expensive than those from the prior generation and thanks to new standards, will be easier to install tires on though will still not be as easy as clinchers.

Carbon Disc Wheelset Evolution 2014-2022

The most notable takeaway for me after assembling this chart is how quickly things have changed and how much the latest generation of all-around wheels for road disc bikes are different than those we rode just a few years ago on our rim brake bikes.

In fact, many of the leading wheelset companies have stopped selling carbon rim brake wheels and all development time and money is spent on disc brake wheels. That’s why I’ve called the 4th generation “All In On Disc Brake Wheels.”

These changes have made the all-around, carbon disc wheelset faster, more comfortable, more durable, and more versatile than all-around, rim brake wheels ever were without any effect on stiffness, acceleration or handling.

Remember when better braking was all that most people fixed on when talking about the benefits of going to road disc bikes? Well, the ability to get all the benefits I just summarized is a whole lot more than better braking, which was enough of a reason for many people to go with a road disc bike in the first place.

Let me go through some of these benefits a bit more.

FasterWider rims mean you can run some 28C tires to gain more comfort without incurring additional drag. Wider tires also reduce “impedance” losses or energy that saps your body from the road vibrations that come with a narrower tire that you need to run at a higher inflation pressure to maintain the same opposing force as a wider one. (See my post on tubeless tires for more on this.)

Most of the Gen 3 road disc rims were designed using 25C tires and produce vertical tire sidewalls that are narrower than the external rim width. Using 28mm tires on these wheels will reduce the aero gains you pay for when buying mid-depth, all-around carbon disc wheels.

More Comfortable – Going tubeless allows you to run your wider tires at lower pressures without pinch flat concerns. Lower pressures make for a more comfortable ride and fewer impedance losses.

More Durable – The best carbon rim brake wheels use resins with high melting points to make it much harder for riders to warp them when they apply or drag the brakes. The trade-off is that these resins can make the wheels a bit brittle. While I can’t quantify the difference, dedicated disc brake wheels use lower melting temperature resins that are less brittle.

More Versatile – Because the latest generations of all-around, carbon disc wheels have gotten wider, more tubeless friendly, and more durable, you can comfortably ride them on gravel and cyclocross tracks with the appropriate tires. Those with 23mm or 25mm inside rim widths are as wide as dedicated gravel wheels. Doing this can save you having to buy another set of wheels to excel on dirt, grass, and gravel roads and trails.

A few words about tubeless tires. You’ll notice that tubeless tires are mentioned quite often in my description of developments and the benefits they bring.

Removable valve cores, easier to mount rims, and a whole lot more experience with tubeless tires while testing all these road disc wheelsets has made installing them easier and cleaner, and mellowed me somewhat to the minimally more added work they bring over standard clincher tires.

Lower prices, lower rolling resistance (equivalent or lower than the best clincher tires), the ability to run lower pressures, more comfort, and having nearly every puncture seal so far has made me look past many of my previous objections to tubeless.

While tubeless still requires a learning curve, I can now say the benefits they add to the right rims can outweigh the diminishing disadvantages and make it well worth getting up that curve if you want those benefits. My review of tubeless tires lays all of this out in more detail and gives you my recommendations of the best ones.


For each In The Know Cycling review, I evaluate category-specific criteria in four groups – performance, design, quality, and cost. The criteria that matter most in those groups for the best all-around wheels for road disc bikes are as follows:

Performance:  Versatility, aerodynamics, crosswind management, stiffness, acceleration, comfort, and handling.

Design:  Wheel weight and material, rim depth, rim inner and outer widths, rim profile, hub and spoke design, and wheel finish.

Quality: Durability, warranties, and service/support.

Cost:  Purchase price, cost of ownership and replacement cost.

I detail what I mean by these criteria for all-arounds here.

Most of those are common with the ones I used for carbon disc brake all-arounds with a few exceptions and changes in emphasis that I’ll point out below.

While all these criteria are important, some are more or less important depending on what kind of riding you do and what kind of bike you have.

Since the latest all-around carbon disc wheelsets are deeper than earlier ones, I’ve added crosswind performance as a criterion for this review.

And since these wheels are ideal for both a wide range of paved road terrain and for mixed or unpaved surfaces and for cyclocross racing, versatility is even more important when evaluating all-around carbon disc wheelsets than all-around rim brake ones.

Other criteria, like stiffness, are equally important whether you are talking all-around, climbing, or aero wheels.

Braking performance isn’t part of the disc brake wheelset evaluation since most hub and spoke systems on disc brake wheels effectively transfer the braking responsibility to the rotors and calipers.

Design specs like weight and rim width are worth noting but may or may not deliver the intended performance those specs are often associated with. A wheelset’s actual acceleration, stiffness, and comfort on the road, for example, are far more important than the design specifications that we often get so hung up (and sold) on and that we too easily equate to those performance attributes.

Considering the range of options the road cycling enthusiast has to choose from in all-around wheels for road disc bikes, I recommend a Best Performer (independent of price) but not a Best Value wheelset (considering performance and price) in this review. For less expensive carbon wheels which unfortunately do no perform as well, check out my review of value-carbon wheelsets here.

Quality is either a go or no go in my recommendations. I won’t recommend anything that doesn’t have an acceptable level of quality according to my criteria. I’m also not going to recommend something that has superior quality but under-performs or has higher costs. When two wheelsets perform more or less the same, I do consider quality and cost criteria in recommending one as a Best Performer.

With all of that noted, here are my evaluations of the best all-around carbon disc wheelsets for road cycling enthusiasts.


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Carbon disc wheels comparative ratings

Go directly to reviews:

Bontrager RSL 51 TLR

Campagnolo Bora WTO 33 Disc Brake

DT Swiss ERC 1100 DICUT 47

Easton EC90 SL Disc

ENVE SES 4.5 AR Disc

HED Vanquish RC4 Pro

Industry Nine i9.45

Reynolds Aero 46 DB

Roval CLX 50 Disc

Zipp 454 NSW


Best Performer


Zipp 454 NSW carbon disc wheels

If you don’t want to pick between wheels that would be fast on flats vs. on rolling hills vs. on climbs or in a training ride vs. a group ride, road race, or crit, get the latest Zipp 454 NSW Tubeless Disc-brake wheelset. It will be fast on all those and the fastest on many of them.

At US$4000/£3200/3600, it better be. But if top performance in a single wheelset in nearly every situation and against nearly every criterion is important to you, it just may be worth it.

That’s the conclusion that fellow testers Nate, Miles, and I reached after riding the Zipp 454 NSW.

At its core, it’s a stiff, deep, and light wheelset. Those three attributes along with the 454 NSW’s quick engaging rear hub make it so responsive that it redefines the term “snappy.”

Practically, the 454 NSW’s superior ability to accelerate made it an ideal partner for 20-30 second break-away efforts and sprint finishes. Except for on the steepest of slopes, Miles said this wheelset “made me faster on nearly any effort I tried”.

And Miles is already a fast dude, regularly winning P/1/2 masters crits, road, and stage races in the Northeast and finishing top 10 at US Nationals.

Even for me, a more average B group level roadie, the sensation of riding this highly responsive 454 NSW wheelset was energizing almost from the first pedal stroke. Once into my rides, I felt like I was having great legs every day I rode them.

Nate, our A group Bullet Train ride leader who rode the 454 NSW on a couple of those early morning hammerfests and out front of 100 and 140 mile one day rides with 8,000 to 10,000 feet of climbing initially resisted giving them up for others to test. Despite being a peace-loving guy, he paraphrased Charleton Heston’s line about prying them out of his “cold dead hands”.

Nate has been testing all sorts of wheels along with me for at least the last 5 years including the prior generation 454 NSW rim brake wheels. His feedback started with a most definitive statement.

These are the first wheels where I haven’t felt like I was making a tradeoff between aero and climbing performance.

I don’t know what they cost (I’ve trained him not to look at price or specs and just judge performance). I’m sure it will be high. But, I would put them in the category where it just MIGHT be worth paying $1,000 more for these than others which are ALMOST as good but not on all characteristics. (Nate’s capitalization.)

Unlike Nate’s experience with the earlier 454 NSW where that wheelset wobbled in crosswinds to the point where he slowed on each fast downhill section of a looping road race, he felt confident on similarly fast, windy descents riding this new 454 NSW.

Miles felt far less comfortable in some windy situations. When the breezes picked up to about 20 mph and came directly from the side, it felt like he was getting a slight body check and was pushed around far more than with any wheelset he’s ever ridden.

It may be that the 454 NSW’s sawtooth rim profile is best at reducing crosswinds at lesser yaw angles than what Miles experienced and perhaps more similar to those Nate did. For me, I always seem to be riding into headwinds no matter what course I’m on and it was no different riding the 454 NSW.

The only other slight knock we had on this wheelset was its ability to hold its momentum on the flats at speeds north of 25mph. While the 454 NSW rolled just fine at that speed, it felt like we needed a bit more effort to keep pace with the average aero wheelset that is often 5-10mm deeper and 200-300 grams heavier. It’s simply a matter of physics and a tradeoff the speediest of enthusiasts might want to keep in mind.

Zipp 454 NSW

When you aren’t on a breakaway, going over rolling terrain, heading up climbs, or sprinting for the line, you are likely doing a lot of handling. And the good news is that this is another area where the 454 NSW outperforms most wheelsets.

We experienced precise, confident, high-speed cornering. These wheels do exactly what you want them to do in big arc turns, 50+mph downhills, slower switchbacks, and even quick, last-second movements.

With the right tires and at the right pressures, the ride is also very comfortable no matter how good the pavement is. While many wheels are similarly compliant nowadays, some deeper wheels tend to give up comfort by using a narrower rim to keep weight down. You make no such trade-off with this wheelset.

Add to all of this a very smooth rolling hubset and almost silent, fast engaging freehub. That makes it even more tempting to start a breakaway and easier crank up a sprint.

The 454 NSW defies categorization. It’s the wheelset equivalent of a hors categorie climb, one that is beyond categorization.

Based on its 55 to 59 mm deep rims, you might think the Zipp 454 NSW is an aero wheelset. You wouldn’t be wrong. Judging from its 1388 gram weight, you might guess it climbs well. Indeed it does. Hookless, 23mm inside rim width will make for a very comfortable ride, right? Yes and perhaps worthy of riding gravel, though we didn’t test it off-road.

So is it an all-around wheelset? Yes, that may be the most encompassing definition though it is faster and better than any all-arounder we’ve tested on terrain that never exceeds 5-6% up or down and faster than many aero wheels on the flats and climbing wheels on steeper pitches.

Perhaps it’s best to call it an all-everything wheelset. Or just fast anywhere you want to ride.

You can buy the Zipp 454 NSW Tubeless Disc-brake wheelset at stores I recommend using these links to Competitive CyclistTweeksTredz (10% off with code ITKTDZ10), stores I recommend because they have the best prices, customer satisfaction records, and selection on enthusiast-level cycling gear.

Best Performer


ENVE 4.5 AR Disc

If versatility is one of the key measures of an all-around wheelset, ENVE’s SES 4.5 AR Disc is one of the most versatile of any road disc wheelset.

It does more things better than any of the other road wheels I’ve reviewed except for the US$4000 Zipp 454 NSW. At a market price starting at US$2550, £2700, €3000 depending on the hub choice, the ENVE 4.5 AR Disc also costs far less if you’re paying in US Dollars though about the same in Pounds or Euros.

It’s also a better bet than the Zipp 454 if you also want one wheelset for both paved roads and those long flat and rolling gravel ones.

This sets up the ever-present question we roadies face – is it worth paying more to get the best performing gear for the kind of riding I do?

That’s for each of us to decide individually. If you are a full-on road cycling enthusiast who likes to come out and play aggressively and comfortably on rough roads, gravel, dirt, or grass in addition to going really fast and smoothly on good roads in individual and group rides or races, the ENVE 4.5 AR is the place where your money will have the biggest payoff.

You probably already know that at 25.0mm measured, the 4.5AR carbon disc wheelset has a far greater internal width – often by a lot – than others in this category and at 50.2mm front, 55.2mm rear per my measurements, are as deep or deeper than all but the Zipp 454.

The 4.5AR’s performance does bear witness to those design factoids. It feels as fast or faster on flat, rolling, and descending terrain, as comfortable on the good roads, and more comfortable on rough roads and unpaved paths than any other carbon bike wheels I’ve evaluated.

It accelerates, climbs, handles, and deflects crosswinds on par with all but the best wheels in those categories that I’ve reviewed here. With the more than capable and relatively quiet ENVE alloy hubset, the 4.5 AR weighs 50 to 100 grams more than most of the others in this category but its superior stiffness feels like it is more than making up for that additional weight in transferring your power. You can also get it at a higher price with a Chris King R45 hubset if you prefer the freewheeling sound and faster-engaging freehub.

Yeah, the 4.5 AR’s width makes them stand out against other bikes when you are riding in a bunch or stopping for a break. And with their hookless rims, you only should plan to ride them tubeless either with sealant or inner tubes. This takes a bit more effort to initially set up but is the only way to go if you want to get all the benefits of these wheels. You’ll also want to check the chainstay and fork width clearance on your frame if you’ve got an older road disc bike.

But, if you want great performance from one wheelset that you otherwise might need to have two different ones for the range of riding you do, the 4.5 AR stands alone and probably is a more price-competitive option vs. the cost of buying two wheelsets.

As I wrote just above, the ENVE 4.5 AR is “hookless” meaning the rims don’t have hooks on the inside to mate with the beads from your tubeless tires. When you run tires at lower pressures, as you should with these rims, you don’t need hooks to keep road tires in place. As some tubeless tires don’t work well with these hookless rims, ENVE publishes a list of tires they have approved and recommend and a few that are not compatible with hookless rims (including the Continental GP 5000 TL).

You can get the ENVE SES 4.5 AR Disc at my top-ranked stores Competitive Cyclist and JensonUSA.


It’s easy to judge any wheelset by looking at what it does well, what it doesn’t, what it costs, and what it looks like. And, if you’re into design and engineering, add specs and tech into your evaluation.

I’ll get to much of that. But when it comes to the Bontrager RSL 51 TLR, let me start with the bottom line.

The RSL 51 is the definition of a modern all-around road disc wheelset.

This mid-depth Bontrager does most of the things road cycling enthusiasts like you and me should look for if we can only buy one wheelset. You can train with it at speed on a variety of terrain, enjoy friendly competition against your buds riding hard on group rides, and do long-distance events in comfort. It doesn’t have any obvious weaknesses.

Its glossy finish and branding look good without being loud, it has a strong warranty and dealer network, and it’s priced in the same ballpark as other, less well-rounded alternatives.

The RSL 51’s specs are all modern without offending anyone. It uses the updated model of the well-established DT Swiss 240 hubs (Ratchet EXP) and has rims that are wider than most all-arounds (23.2mm internal, 30.7mm external), as deep as most all-arounds go these days (51.1mm), and are hooked for riding with tubeless or clincher tires.

And at 1441 grams on my scale with taped rims rather than the weighty plastic rim strips installed, they are marginally lighter (about 20 to 120 grams) than most in this category.

No, the RSL 51 is not going to outperform a climbing wheelset going up alpine roads or aero wheels in crit race or the best gravel wheels riding off-road. For that, you’ll need all-around wheels with those strengths but other weaknesses or wheels designed uniquely for those types of events or terrain.

Bontrager RSL 51

The Aeolus RSL 51 on Nate’s Venge

But, for an all-around wheelset, my fellow testers Nate, Miles, and I found the Bontrager Aeolus RSL 51 TLR do climb quite well. Descending at high speeds is also a confident experience thanks to their excellent handling and unfazed reaction to side winds.

That good handling extends to flat roads where the RSL 51 tracked well through corners paired up with the 28c Bontrager R3 Hard-Case Lite and 25c Michelin Power Road tubeless tires we mounted on them.

Acceleration is another one of RSL 51’s strengths. Combined with their handling skills, this makes for a very responsive wheelset, important when keeping up with moves on a group ride and staying out of trouble in a paceline.

Despite their few mm of added depth, we didn’t find they were any faster or held their speed any better than other all-around wheels we’ve tested. And while they accelerate well and are stiff enough for mere enthusiast mortals like me, they aren’t the kind of max stiffness wheels you want for the kind of >1000 watt sprints you might do in a crit. Bontrager does make wheels for that but these aren’t them.

On long rides, the RSL 51 is quite comfortable and better than most in this category. The new DT240 Ratchet EXP hub is louder than its predecessor when freewheeling but not overly so and it’s a relatively low-frequency sound that I don’t find annoying.

At US$2400/£2000/€2400 the Bontrager Aeolus RSL 51 certainly isn’t cheap but is one of the better all-around wheelsets we’ve ridden. They are out of stock at Bontrager’s online store until supply chain issues get resolved but you may be able to find them or get on a waiting list at your local bike shop that carries Bontrager gear.


It’s easy to see how one can fall in love with the Campagnolo Bora WTO 33 Disc Brake wheels.

Taking them out of the box created one of those rare moments when I say to myself, “Wow. These look special.”

The glossy black paint finish on the rims is stunning. It’s as high quality as any I’ve seen on a fine automobile. I couldn’t help but look down at them gleaming in the sun from time to time during my month of test rides.

Likewise, the hub shells, while aluminum, look finely fitted and coated. The freehubs (I ordered Campagnolo 12-speed, Shimano HG11, and SRAM XDR bodies to test with different groupsets) look like they were precision machined.

Campagnolo Bora WTO 33 Disc Brake

I seldom even comment on the aesthetics of wheelsets or any bicycle component let alone open a review with the kind of praise of a product’s looks that I just did. One’s view of beauty, fashion, style, and the like are all subjective and personal. Far be it for me to suggest that my subjective perception of these things is how you should see it.

But the Bora WTO wheels are unique. Like them are not, their extraordinary look sets them far apart from other road wheels.

If that’s where the story ended – skin-deep beauty and all of that –  this would be a rather shallow review.

Instead, what you see on the surface is an indication of the engineering that shows up in the Bora WTO 33 wheelset’s performance.

The pleasing-to-the-eyes hubs I commented on above roll silky smooth on the road. The freehubs sing a refined, even-tempered tune I can listen to for hours rather than the loud or harsh emissions of other hubs that shout to stand out or the uneven whomp, whomp of those that don’t sound as well made.

I sensed these wheels would roll better than most after putting my thru-axles into the hubs. They don’t slap in as with every other wheelset I’ve attached to a frame. Instead, they slide in with a little resistance and tighten up only with the proper alignment of axle and frame that suggests tighter tolerances than most wheels.

Once installed, they spin in the stand seemingly forever or, in reality, for enough time for me to grab something from my workbench and come back to the stand and see them still turning.

The Bora WTO 33 disc brake wheels are also sufficiently though not overly stiff. Whether doing a 20-minute climb up an average 7% grade or 20-minute tempo intervals punctuated by sprint bursts every few minutes, the wheels didn’t flinch even though my legs wanted to.

Going downhill and handling at speed feels confident both on the Vittoria Corsa G+ 2.0 and Continental Grand Prix 5000 tubeless tires I paired with these Campagnolos. At recommended tire pressures, they feel comfortable but not overly plush.

Despite their 33mm low-profile depth, the Bora WTO 33 rides more like a smooth-rolling all-around wheelset that isn’t affected by crosswinds than a highly responsive, fast accelerating wheelset to take on your next alpine climbing vacation. Its 1512 gram measured weight (including pre-installed rim strips but not tubeless valves) is also in line with today’s all-around road disc wheelsets.

If the Campagnolo Bora WTO 33 Disc Brake’s combination of looks, engineering, and performance suits you, order them using these links to the wheelset’s page at Competitive Cyclist and Chain Reaction Cycles, stores I recommend for their combination of low prices and high customer satisfaction ratings on a broad selection of enthusiast-level cycling gear.


(DT Swiss will replace the DICUT 47 with the new ERC 1100 and 1400 DICUT 45 introduced in November 2021. We will review them when they become available.)

Even though they sell a ton of wheelsets under their own brand name and as stock wheels for leading bike makers including Giant and Specialized, DT Swiss has never been known for the performance of their own branded models of more expensive wheelsets. Hubs and spokes? Yes. But, high-end wheels? No.

DT Swiss seem to have always been behind the curve with rim shapes, widths, carbon, and whatever else goes into making rims that combine with their ubiquitous hubs and spokes to make top-performing wheelsets. They seemed to lack a design point-of-view about how to make great rims that, right or wrong, is clear and consistent at other companies making high-performance wheels.

DT Swiss Carbon Disc WheelsetPerhaps realizing this deficiency, DT Swiss has gotten aero design and testing help for the ERC 1100 DICUT 47 and other new DT Swiss brand wheel products from the wheelset design company SwissSide. The latter is a relatively new company led by race car designers that sell mid-depth and full-depth aero wheels targeted to triathletes and time trialists. As for DT Swiss, their new line of endurance wheels are only made for road disc bikes. Very Gen 3!

Has this collaboration brought the ERC 1100 to the performance level of the best all-around wheelsets? Not in my evaluation, but they seem to be getting closer.

Overall, I’d say the ERC 1100 is predictable. That word can have both positive and negative connotations, but it best sums up for me what I find in this wheelset.

It is certainly fast and stiff, as you would expect from a wheelset this depth. Anecdotally, and I say that since construction on the In The Know Cycling wind tunnel is not scheduled to start until 2038, I’d put the ERC 1100s in the range of the faster wheels of this group on the flats and hills. Tour magazine put their aero performance only behind the ENVE SES 4.5 AR amongst the wheelsets we both evaluated.

Though their weight measures in the middle of the pack and they certainly can climb, they wouldn’t be my first choice for a long ride with a lot of hills and steeper climbs. They just don’t go uphill as well as other all-around wheels I’ve reviewed in this post.

The ERC 1100’s ride is firm, even at the 70 psi pressures that I ride 25c tubeless wheels with its19C inside width dimension. Firm is not harsh and it’s not cushy. You’ll get the kind of response from the road you would expect based on what you see in front of you. You won’t get jarred nor will you float above it.

If you want to go off-road and not get tired out riding on dirt or mixed surfaces, I’d suggest dropping the pressure on these wheels another 10 or 20psi from the level you normally ride.

Wind conditions are manageable with the ERC 1100. When the winds come, you can comfortably steer through them.  You certainly won’t get blown over nor can you plan on the wheels totally taking care of the crosswinds for you.

Finally, handling is confident, precise and … predictable. So are the hubs, which use the very solid DT240 internals I’ve come to know and very much enjoy. They are used on many top-performing wheelsets.

Predictable for me means you are going to get what you expect and not be let down. Applied to the ERC 1100, it means you aren’t going to get any special thrill or surprise, good or bad, from these wheelsets. They are solid performers that do what you expect. Very Swiss.

Perhaps it is surprisingly good to get a predictably good top-end wheelset from a company that has, for me, turned out only average wheelsets in the past. I’ll take it.

Despite an MSRP/RRP that is as high-end as the carbon disc wheelset they aspire to be, you can often find the ERC 1100 DICUT 47 at a far more competitive market price by clicking through to my recommended store Tredz (10% discount with code ITKTDZ10) and others at Know’s Shop. DT Swiss introduced a new model of this wheelset in Fall 2021 that we plan to review in Spring 2022.


Easton’s EC90 SL wheelsets have been through several iterations over the years. The rims have gotten wider, the hubs have improved, and tubeless and disc brake models have been added to the clincher and rim brake ones.

I’ve ridden several of these models and, as with the current EC90 SL disc wheelset that is the subject of this review, usually come away with the same conclusion – this is a solid wheelset and better than the last version.

“Solid” modifies several of the performance characteristics of the EC90SL disc wheelset. Overall, I always felt solidly planted riding these wheels. No surprises or conditions I need to worry about or make up for.

Easton Vault hub

The latest Easton, centerlock Vault hubs roll smoothly and coast with a rich (versus tiny or variable) freehub sound. The rear is a solid-looking thing with a hub shell shaped like the bottom 2/3rds of a nose cone as it increases in diameter toward the far larger drive-side flange.

There are a lot of specs – weight, pawls, teeth, engagement angel, etc. – that go with the hub description but what matters most is the noticeably quick acceleration it all produces.

I mention the hubs early in this review as I found they are what gives the EC90 SL disc its personality and allows the rest of the wheelset performance to be… solid, if not particularly distinctive.

It’s not an overly stiff or plush wheelset yet neither is it noodly or harsh. Crosswinds and wind gusts don’t affect your ride or line a bit, better than most in the all-around category.

I rode the EC90 SLs with 25mm Zipp Tangente road tubeless tires that together handled well through all the cornering and maneuvering I threw at it. Continental Grand Prix 5000 TL tires wouldn’t fit on these rims, a problem I’ve had putting those tires on other wheelsets as well.

While there are a lot of enthusiasts using 28mm tires on road wheels these days to get better comfort and handling, I’d recommend against that with these wheels if speed is a priority for you. Even the narrowest 28mm tire I tested measured only slightly narrower than the 28mm EC90 SL rims when mounted and most are wider.

This will put a big dent into the wheelset’s aero performance that is at best on par with the average hoops in this review of mid-depth wheels. And as mentioned earlier, the handling with 25C tires inflated properly is very good.

At a market price of $1900 in the US from Planet Cyclery and direct from Easton, the EC90 SL disc is one of the less expensive wheelsets in the all-around road disc category. Outside North America, it’s harder to find and more expensive than most.

While it clearly performs a step above wheels in the increasingly popular $1000-$1500 value carbon category, it might be time for some further updates to move it from solid to standout.


It would be an understatement to say HED Cycling took a while to offer an all-carbon clincher wheelset. One of the first to sell wheels using toroid-shaped, deep-section rims to gain an aero advantage over 10 years ago, the company had only used their patented design for tubular or carbon-alloy wheelsets.

That has now changed with the introduction of the disc-brake-only HED Vanquish carbon clincher wheelsets. By not making these in a rim brake version, HED effectively avoided the engineering challenges other carbon wheelset makers went through to prevent overheating, delamination, or blowouts from the heat created by rim braking.

My fellow tester Miles, a successful P/1/2 racer who wins a lot, and I, a B-group rider who watches a lot of races on TV, evaluated the HED Vanquish 4, the 40mm deep all-around and shallowest of the new line which also includes 60 and 80mm deep models

HED Vanquish 4 Disc Wheelset RearThere’s a lot to like about the Vanquish 4. This is a highly competitive road disc wheelset for the company’s first all-carbon clincher offering.

At the same time, there are a few things still lacking and that might not appeal to the less competitive, less handy rider that makes me think HED would have benefitted from getting carbon clincher experience a bit sooner.

Above all, the Vanquish 4 is a supremely stiff wheelset. This provides a big advantage when initiating or responding to acceleration on the flats, charging uphill, and sprinting out of corners.

Miles felt a ton of confidence going hard into corners and the post-corner sprint stiffness was inspiring. In a full-out straightaway sprint, he found nothing lost in his forward progress toward the line.

The Vanquish 4 are relatively light wheels too. The pair we tested weighed 1466 grams without tape or valve stems, about 50 grams less than what HED claims. That made them one of the lightest and another one of the stiffest wheelsets in this category.

While you probably want rims deeper than these 40.3mm ones for maximum aero performance or a flat criterium, a race whose last kilometer has a 3-6% kicker into the finish would be ideal for these HEDs.

If like me, you aren’t a racer, all that good stiffness and handling and climbing are still the things you want and that I enjoyed in this wheelset. And if you branch out to do some mixed surface, gravel or cyclocross riding, the Vanquish 4 offers a lot of versatility as you can run 25C, 28C or wider tires with good sidewall support on these rims which measure 21.3mm internal width.

For best aero performance, you’ll want to run 25C tires. HED’s aero tests with the benchmark Conti GP4K SII show the 25C performs better than the 28C version of the same model tire. My measurements show the Conti GP5K TL measures 27.0mm at 80psi or a millimeter narrower than the actual 28.0mm external rim width at the tire/rim intersection and 29.0mm max. My benchmark 25C Zipp Tangente Speed Road Tubeless (RT25) comes in at 26.0mm at 80psi and the 28C at 29.0mm at 70psi.

Crosswinds within reason didn’t bother these HEDs even though they have more of a V-shaped spoke-edge rim profile than most of the U-shaped ones of current carbon hoops.

Miles and I had a slightly different impression of the Vanquish 4’s comfort. At 60-65psi with 25C tires, I found them to be in the middle of the range of the all-around carbon road disc wheels I’ve tested for this review. They didn’t seem a whole lot more comfortable at 50psi using 28C tires either. I found others including the ENVE 4.5 AR more comfortable.

Ever the hardman, Miles found them very comfortable at 70-75psi over rougher roads even though we weigh pretty much the same.

We did agree that the hubs rolled smoothly and the freehub audibly lets you know when it is coasting. It’s not anywhere near as loud as a Chris King, i9, or even Mavic hubs. While I prefer a quieter DT240 or silent Zipp Cognition hub, I didn’t mind the HED freewheel Sonic signature, a slightly higher pitched, higher quality sound.

Miles dug it.

Perhaps we’ve become spoiled with so many hubs not giving you pre-load adjustment options like these HED hubs do. The rear axle loosened and tripped up Miles when he swapped cassettes requiring readjustment to get it back into his frame. I had a similar issue with somehow changing the front preload and needing to readjust to get the rotor and caliper realigned. We’re both amateur wrenches and can deal with these things. I think this would frustrate most enthusiasts who may be a little less experienced.

We also agreed that the wheels’ tubeless setup wasn’t great. While both of us have a lot of experience with tubeless tires and rims, our experience with the Vanquish 4 suggests HED is behind the tubeless wheelset leaders.

First, HED doesn’t provide tubeless valves with these wheels. While that’s not unheard of, it is unusual these days and seems like a mistake considering you want to make things easy for your customers, especially considering all the variables in setting up tubeless wheels.

Second, for the wheels we tested, HED sent a rubberized sleeve or grommet that you put the valve into and then need to put in the rim’s valve hole. There’s very little tolerance for getting that sleeve in if you don’t cut out all the tape surrounding the valve hole.

If you wrap your rims twice with tape as I did with these wheels, there’s no chance of getting the grommet in unless you have a very sharp, small knife and remove all the tape covering the hole after the first pass and then again after the second. Using a valve I had in my workshop that already had a wide rubber bottom, I didn’t see the value of the grommet, couldn’t get it in deep enough for the tire bead to easily clear, and put them aside.

Why the need for the grommet? Well as Miles and I learned, without it, the valve will come through the rim bed if, or in our cases when, the tire pressure exceeds about 80psi for any length of time. It happened to Miles when he had his bike on the top of the car in the sunlight. My bike was inside the car on a hot day when the valve came through.

I went back, retaped with more attention to clearing the hole and getting the grommet in place. With that done, no problemo. Further, HED says they’ve changed the layup so that the grommet is not needed and no longer shipped with new Vanquish wheels.

The tubeless tires we used required a compressor for the tire beads to lock out in the bead channels. We also needed to put sealant in the tires for them to hold air for any length of time. For 28C tires, the one-shot canister Joe Blow type pump didn’t offer sustained enough pressure to lock out the beads.

Noting that Miles and I each had difficulty (and made a bit of a mess) trying 3 different tires, I’m led to believe that an easier mating bead hook would improve the tubeless setup experience. Or, you could turn this over to your local wrench to take care of it.

With the tubeless setup out of the way, the Vanquish 4’s performance will hopefully put it out of your mind. It’s available at HED dealers and online using this link to Competitive Cyclist, one of my top-ranked stores.

HED has recently renamed the wheelset the Vanquish RC4 to reinforce that it is a Road Carbon wheelset. They are also selling the one reviewed above as the Vanquish RC4 Pro and a model with a lower spec hubset called the Vanquish RC4 Performance that sells for $1,000 less. It’s also available at the store link just above.


I’ve always thought about Industry Nine as a hub company with its high POE (points of engagement) and brightly colored hubs garnering all the attention.

Turns out, “i9” also sells all-around, aero, and climbing carbon road disc wheels amongst a broader wheelset line.

The i9.45 road disc wheelset reviewed here is a collaboration between i9 and the rim and wheelset maker Reynolds. After evaluating them, it’s clear this 45mm deep all-around wheelset stands out in a number of important ways and has me now thinking about Industry Nine as both a hub and wheelset provider.

When I took it out of the box, I didn’t quite know what to think. The hubs and spoke nipples on my test set are purple, one of 9 distinct colors you can order in addition to black and silver. The labels are full rim height, stick-on ones with i9’s large, hub-inspired logos attached.

The rims themselves look like they are 2nd generation, converted rim-brake hoops with a hybrid-toroid profile whose curvature abruptly stopped in time for an unfinished brake track. Yet they are 3rd generation width (21mm internal, 28mm external) and tubeless-ready.

i9.45 carbon disc wheelsetI wondered if I was about to test a wheelset designed by a committee, the kind that melds the voices of past successes, exciting new ideas, and compromises needed to meet management’s cost and schedule targets.

It’s a good thing I don’t bias my reviews on initial impressions or how a product looks. While this wheelset doesn’t align with my aesthetic preferences, every cycling enthusiast has their own perception of what looks good to them.

On the road, the i9.45s are full-throttle, road race wheels. They are stiff, snappy, and responsive, great on a rolling course and one with a lot of climbing.

While the POE isn’t something most enthusiasts will notice or should care about, the Torch’s 60 POE (or 3 degrees between engagement points) is 2x or more than most hubs, something you do notice if you are doing any kind of competitive riding. Fellow In The Know Cycling tester and USAC Nationals Masters racer Miles felt near-instant engagement when sprinting out of corners or off lead-out wheels when he competed on the i9.45s.

A distinctive sound comes from that hub, louder than most but similar in volume to Chris King and Mavic hubs. Here are videos comparing the Chris King and i9 Torch and another comparing the Mavic 360 and DT Swiss. These hubs or their internals are used in many of the best road disc wheels.

The Torch hubs ride buttery smooth both in the front and rear. They make the wheels roll about as well as any Miles and I have ever ridden on the road.

Smooth-rolling doesn’t equate to ride comfort though. The later is a function of your tire width and pressure and the compliance available in the integration of the wheel’s rims, spokes, and hubs. While your tire choices can improve comfort, your wheels are usually what limits it.

While not uncomfortable and despite trying different tires at different widths and pressures, we didn’t find the i9.45 to be as comfortable as others in this all-around road disc wheelset category.

i9.45 carbon disc wheelset

If you are a racer or enjoy the competition of group rides, lateral stiffness matters more to you than compliance, aka comfort. And, the i9.45 has lateral stiffness in spades.

That stiffness along with the rear hub engagement make these wheels very responsive, fast to accelerate, and good on climbs. They also handle precisely and confidently, helping to keep you on your line going through a turn.

You can pick these wheels up, while supporting In The Know Cycling reviews, through this link to Competitive Cyclist, one of my top-ranked stores.


If you are afraid of heights, people tell you “don’t look down”.

If being on trend is important to you, I’ll give you the same advice when it comes to the Reynolds Aero 46 DB carbon disc wheelset.

However, if road speed unperturbed by crosswinds is more important, just look forward, pedal and smile.

Reynolds has stuck with a classic, V-nose design for the spoke edge of these wheels and added a somewhat toroid-shaped rim profile heading to the other edge where the rim meets the tire for the 46, 65, and 80mm deep disc and rim brake wheels in its Aero line. This, when it seems like the world of carbon bike wheels have gone to blunt nose, U-shaped rim profiles.

For me, Reynolds’ design definitely works to produce and maintain my speed. While I did find myself looking down riding these wheels, it was to see my speed and power output rather than the rim profile. With the Aero 46 DB it felt like I was riding faster than normal in the same power ranges I normally ride.

My experience is, of course, anecdotal rather than scientific. Interestingly, I came across the wind tunnel chart below of tests done by DT Swiss.  It compares the aero drag of their ERC 1100 Dicut DB wheels, designed by the Formula One aero engineers of SwissSide they regularly tout, against Reynolds Aero 46 (blue line) and Zipp 303 Firecrest (grey line) wheelsets.

About 80% of our road riding is done when the wind is coming from a 0 to 10-degree angle (or “yaw”) and 50% is done between 0 and 5 degrees based on field testing done by Flo Cycling.Aero Drag chart comparing different carbon disc wheelsets

Unfortunately, DT Swiss didn’t specify whether the Reynolds or Zipp wheels are rim or disc brake or current or older models. It is kind of important as Reynolds only makes the Aero 46 in a disc brake version now and the current Aero 46 DB (introduced in 2017, the same year as the ERC 1100 Dicut DB wheels) are wider and likely more aero than the 2016 Aero 46 DB and rim brake versions.

Based on when the DT Swiss wheels were being designed and wind tunnel tested, my guess is that they are benchmarking the ERC 1100 against older models of the Reynolds and Firecrest rim brake wheels.

Regardless, it’s interesting to see the Reynolds Aero 46 held up as a benchmark in the same way the Firecrest has for years (but no longer should be as the NSW has surpassed it).

The second aero consideration is how well a deeper wheel does in managing side or crosswinds. Much of the reason for the move to the blunt nose design was to… uh… blunt those crosswinds and keep riders from having to steer against the wind and constantly modify their line or get blown off the road.

Reynolds Aero 46 DB carbon disc wheelset

The Aero 46 DB next to Zipp’s 303 NSW disc brake wheel

Well, that design clearly works. Wheels like the blunt nose Zipp NSWs in road disc and rim brake versions at various depths are better than the old Firecrest used to be.

But, my experience with the Aero 46 DB found them as good in crosswinds as the NSW despite a very different design. I rode 100 miles and 10,000 feet on the Reynolds wheelset in the Vermont mountains on a horrible rainy day with swirling winds coming at me from seemingly every direction and often when I was crawling up steep passes or “gaps” as they call them up there. Weighing a mere 150lbs/68kg, I notice crosswinds as much as anyone.

My mind and body were truly miserable in the rain and wind of this ride but the Aero 46 DB wheels were totally unphased by either.

That reminded me of what I often remind you: focus on performance rather than the specs or design hype (though Reynolds does hype their rim profile as crosswind beaters).

On to other performance considerations…

The stiffness and rolling smoothness of this wheelset is good though not without a few characteristics I don’t care for.

Both in and out of the saddle I find these Reynolds wheels plenty stiff. After many rides, the wheels remain true and I’ve found the spokes are all still tensioned. But when I crank out big watts (for me) going up steep hills, I occasionally hear the spokes ping.

I’ve flexed the spokes by hand and heard the pings but can’t tell whether they are coming from the ends of these straight-pull spokes in the flanges or rims, from rubbing against each other in the cross pattern, or from rubbing against the inside edge of the rim where the spoke passes through to reach the internal nipples. My guess is that it is the latter.

Whatever it is, it is a little disconcerting to hear these pings when you are cranking it out going uphill even though, as mentioned, the wheels ride stiff and have remained true.

They also ride very smoothly on the Torch hub internals supplied by Industry Nine. That said, much like the Chris King hubs, the i9s make a distinctive, loud freehub noise. Zing zing zing zing.

While I know it is popular with some, I personally don’t care for freehub zinging. You attract attention coasting down a road and you can annoy or even anger someone pulling their legs off in front of you to hear you freewheeling behind them. Sometimes it’s an invitation to pull enough to drop you and your coasting, wheel-sucking noise.

While my personal bias against occasional spoke and freehub noise doesn’t affect these otherwise stiff and smooth-rolling wheels, I found the compliance or comfort of the 46 Aero DB to be their weak link.

I ran this road disc wheelset tubeless with both 25C and 28C Zipp Tangente Speed RT and Schwalbe Pro One tires trying to find the best combination of comfort, speed, and handling. No matter, I couldn’t get beyond average compliance with any of these.

As the chart above and others like it show, wider tires increase aero drag. On the flip side, wider tires reduce rolling resistance, can improve handling, and allow you to ride at lower pressures to improve comfort.

So there are tradeoffs and you have to consider and tire choice decisions based on what you prioritize among those trade-offs.

For example, when you start riding at aero speeds (18-20 mph/29-32kph and up), the reduction in aero drag of a narrower tire far outweighs the increase in rolling resistance. Don’t ride that fast and care about comfort more than anything? Put on wider tires because your rolling resistance will be lower, comfort will be greater and you won’t be going fast enough to affect your aero performance.

Assuming, though, that you are looking to ride at aero speeds on these aptly named Reynolds Aero 46 DB wheelset (and the other wheelsets in this carbon disc wheelset category), know that only 25C tubeless tires measure narrower than the 28.2mm wide rims at the “brake track” that have a 28.6mm max width. The Zipp Tangente Speed tires measure 25.8 mm wide and Schwalbe Pro One measures 27.5 mm, both at 80 psi, the max pressure you’d want to run tubeless tires on 19C rims even if you weigh 200lbs/80kg. 28C tires measure wider than the outside width of the rims.

I didn’t measure them with tubed clincher tires. From my experience with other 19C rims, the benchmark 25C Continental Grand Prix 4000S II at 100psi measures very similarly to the Schwalbe Pro One at 80psi. Both measure wider than other popular tubeless and tubed clinchers.

With the 25C Zipp Tangente Speed road tubeless inflated to 65-70 psi where I run my tubeless tires on wheels with this one inside width, the Aero 46 DB wasn’t comfortable. Tolerable, yes. Comfortable no. If I were racing, I’d go with these tires both for their width on these wheels but also because they handle beautifully. You can read about other tire options in my review of tubeless tires.

You can order these wheels through these links to Chain Reaction Cycles and Wiggle.


The Roval CLX 50 is one of those all-around road disc wheels that makes me smile. Not because it does anything notably better than other carbon disc wheelsets I’ve reviewed in this post, except perhaps accelerate, but because it does so many things well just like other wheelsets in this post.

I couldn’t have written that paragraph above a couple of years ago. Not just about Roval but about a good-sized, competitive collection of carbon all-around road disc brake wheelsets we enthusiasts now have to choose from. Like the Roval CLX 50 Disc, there just weren’t that many all-around wheelsets that really did road disc bikes justice a short while ago.

Now there are. And that makes me smile.

Roval CL 50 Carbon Disc WheelsetInterestingly, the Roval CLX 50 rim and disc brake wheels share the same profile – width, depth, shape, tubeless-ready, rim bed, etc. Sure, the two wheels have different spoke counts and hubs but even the hubs have the same DT Swiss 240 internals.

While many of the first two generations of road disc wheels were optimized for rim brakes and tweaked for discs, this one appears to suit both formats well, if not necessarily optimized for either. It may straddle the Gen 2/3 characteristics I laid out earlier, but these compete on performance (and specs) with the latest Gen 3 all-around wheels.

Yes, these road disc wheels are heavier than their rim brake brothers, but the CLX 50 disc brake wheelset, at a measured weight of 1457 grams, is one the wheelsets in this review coming in at under 1500 grams. So, it’s not sacrificing anything by being a rim twin with its rim brake brother.

[By the way, the 1415 gram claimed weight is probably without rim tape. I and several others that have reviewed this wheelset and their actual weight all come in somewhere between 1440 and 1460 grams.]

The Roval CLX 50 has a modern aerodynamic profile and maintains your momentum well. It’s what you should expect from 50mm deep wheels that will set you back US$2400, £1870, €2200 as these will. Not all wheels deliver speed even at that price that but these clearly do.

They remain stable and easily handle in the crosswinds. These will tell you they are feeling the wind but they won’t jerk you around. A light steady touch on the tiller will keep them on course.

They also accelerate and climb better than most. Their light weight, good depth, and sufficient stiffness makes for a great combination leading into and going up hills.

The CLX 50 wheelset is also compliant and handles well, on par with many of the wheelsets in this review.

Run them tubeless and lower your pressure if you want maximum comfort. Toss the plastic spoke hole plugs they come with and run rim tape if you want minimum hassle installing tubeless tires. The tires can get hung up on the plugs and make installing and removing them a whole lot more work than anyone should have to do to enjoy cycling.

Click on these links to Competitive Cyclist, JensonUSA, and Know’s Shop to buy the CLX 50 wheels online at stores I recommend because of their superior price, selection and customer satisfaction ratings.



Carbon disc wheelsets are a fast-growing and fast-changing category of cycling gear. The generation chart displayed near the top of this review shows how much has changed in the last few years.

In this post, you’ve got the latest, best, all-around depth, carbon disc wheelsets available widely to consider in this category. Several others are sold in low volumes or supported only within a limited geographic region or both.

There are several wheelsets whose depth might suggest they might fit in the all-around category. This includes the ENVE SES 3.4 Disc and SES 3.4 AR Disc, the Bontrager Aeolus RSL 37 Disc, and the Zipp Firecrest 303 Disc and 353 NSW. From our testing, you can certainly use them as all-arounders but they aren’t as fast on the flats and rollers as those in this review and are better as dedicated lightweight, climbing wheels. You can see my reviews of them here.

There are a growing number of deeper, mid-depth aero (55mm to 65mm) carbon disc wheelsets you can read about here. While specializing in high-speed riding, few approach the versatility of all-around road disc wheelsets reviewed here.

*      *      *      *      *

Thank you for reading. Please let me know what you think of anything I’ve written or ask any questions you might have in the comment section below.

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If you prefer to buy at other stores, you can still support the site by contributing here or by buying anything through these links to eBay and Amazon.

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Thanks and enjoy your rides safely! Cheers, Steve

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First published on September 23, 2018. Date of the most recent major update shown at the top of the post.


  • Hi Steve,

    The ENVE 4.5 AR disc wheelset does not fit on many road bikes. My Dogma F10 Disk is one of them. What is your opinion of buying ENVE 3.4 disc wheelset as an all around? My average speed when I go outside is between 24 to 30km/h. I am torn between Enve 3.4 and Campagnolo WTO 45.

  • New contenders now. Bontrager RSL 51, 62 and 75. Zipp 353 NSW. Holy, the Zipp ones are expensive.

    • Charlie, Indeed. Follow me on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter and you can see that we are testing the Bontrager RSL 51, Zipp 353 NSW, and a bunch of other wheelsets and gear now. Steve

      • Still waiting for a review of the Royal Rapide CLX 51-60 wheelset. I find it to be a great all around performer.

        • Don’t hold your breath as they are not tubeless compatible

          • Craig, I have nothing against clinchers but I do prefer tubeless. Both work. I’m interested in checking out the different front and rear rim shapes and how they perform together. Certainly works for ENVE but this is unique for Roval. Steve

        • Ed, I’ve been trying to get a hold of the Rapide CLX since they came out. No luck yet. But your feedback will fill the gap. Thanks, Steve

  • Hey Steve,

    Thanks for the review on the RSL 51’s. How would you compare them against the Reynolds aero 46?

  • Would you view the Zipp 454 NSW as having all the same strengths as the Zipp 353 NSW but also the fastest amongst this peer group?

    • Hi Clark, we’re riding the 454 NSW (and 404 Firecrest) now and will post reviews end of the month. Steve

  • Hi Steve
    Thanks very much for this review – absolutely fantastic. I am considering the Enve 4.5 AR for a Factor Ostro build, wondering if you have any views on the Black Inc 45 or whether you will do / have done any reviews of the Black Inc wheelsets?
    Thanks, Kieran

  • Steve, are the 33mm deep Campagnolo WTOs really as aero as the new 51mm deep Bontragers, especially as they are rather narrow and won’t come anywhere near the rle of 105? They score the same in your table.

    • Colin, Thanks for your comment. Aero performance is hard to nail down as a) I don’t have a wind tunnel b) a wind tunnel doesn’t accurately simulate what happens on the road, and c) we ride “all-around” wheels across different terrain, with different tires, and at different speeds.

      For this performance measure, I and my fellow testers have historically used this description to rate what I inaccurately call aero performance and is probably better described as speed performance – “how much you notice a difference in speed and your ability to hold that speed with much less work when you are well underway on flats and downhills.” It’s obviously subjective but tends to show up in the ability to hold your momentum at aero speeds and how smooth the hubs roll at those speeds. Nate, Miles, and I can feel those things out on the road especially after riding so many different wheels on the same roads over the course of a few seasons.

      I’ve typically put my top-rated tubeless tires on each wheelset to neutralize the potential effects of tire width and rolling resistance differences. Fortunately, my previous top-ranked tire (Zipp Tangente Road Tubeless) and current one (Bontrager R3 Hard-Case Lite TLR) have tended to run narrower than most rims and within the Rule of 105 for the 25C models and on some wider rims with the 28C size of those tires. As the wave of wider tires and rims continues, I’ve put a lot of time and emphasis into measuring different combinations of both at 25C and 28C widths to help people make tire choices that maintain their wheel’s aero performance.

      All of that said and prompted by your comment, I went back and looked at all the rim-tire combinations with the wheels in this review. Using the 25C or 28C top-rated tires depending on the rim width, all but the Campy Bora WTO 33 pass the Rule of 105 (with adjustments for new tires – Rule of 108 – or hookless rims – rule of 102 or 103. See the tubeless tire post for more on all these rules.) The Campy likely would with 23C tires but no one rides those anymore.

      And as you suggest, it’s pretty likely that a 33mm deep wheelset isn’t as aero as a 51mm deep one even with a tire that fits under the rule of 105. I know I was super-impressed with how smoothly the Campy hubs rolled. That and my laziness to look closer at the rim-tire ratio in the aero ratings until now likely caused me to overrate it.

      I’ve adjusted the Campy aero rating now, confirmed the others and I thank you again for spurring me to do this with your comment. Cheers, Steve

      • While they are the 45’s not the 33’s Tadej Pogacar seems to do pretty well on the Bora’s 🙂

      • Steve, thanks for such a detailed explanation, I appreciate you taking the time. What you have said makes “real world” sense to me and makes it easier to undertsand your ratings. Keep up the good work, I find this site extremely useful and as such I have made a contribution. Well worth it.

  • Will you be testing the RSL 62?
    I am debating whether to get the RSL 51 or 62. I am more of a sprinter and am mainly racing in flat and mixed terain, but I wonder if the better acceleration of the RSL 51 due to their lower weight and thus saved energy at the end of a race isn’t more beneficial in comparison to the energy you are saving whilst just riding along with 1-2 W less + 4-5 W advantage in an all out sprint at the end of a race.
    For record, I am riding a Reynolds Strike Disc wheelset right now and these feel fine, but I think they are pretty heavy vs. top-of-the-line wheelsets.

    • Mike, We will be testing the RSL 62 starting later this week and likely have a review out by mid-September. Generally speaking though, weight is less important than aero until you get up over 7% grades. The amount of weight difference between those two wheels is also relatively small (125g or so) and there are many other ways to make up the energy losses – correct tire width, inflation pressure, weight on your bike (and person), etc. The Reynolds Strike is another 200-250g or so more than the RSL 62, an amount you’ll notice for much the same depth.

      Those are all just specs. How they actually perform on the road is what we’ll be testing out and reviewing. Steve

  • Hi, great new and updated wheel sets table.

    I am contemplating the new RSL 51, however i also have availability on some Campagnolo 45 WTO 45’s or 60’s

    The WTO’s and RSL are currently premium priced but given your great feedback on the Bontrager XXX 6, are those still comparable and great for flat/aero ?

    Im mainly flat and heavy rider at 90kg

    The Bontrager xxx6 disc are on sale in UK with a saving of 30% compared the WTO’s and RSL’s

    • Eric, Well, the XXX 6 wheels haven’t gotten any slower! We’ve just started testing the RSL 62 so I don’t have any feedback yet. We haven’t tested the Bora WTO 45 or 60. But you can see how the XXX 6 compared against other aero wheels in my review of that category here. If you are riding at aero speeds on mostly flat roads, the XXX 6 is still a good choice and especially good if you can get it a discount from a dealer you can trust. Steve

      • Thank you so much Steve.

        Fantastic, im looking forward to reading about the RSL 62’s.

        Your content and ‘real life’ test and reviews are always appreciated and welcomed.

        Funny , the comment you made about XXX 6 , yes they have not become any slower and I think still quite modern in their rim design and profile.

        Again, thank you for a really good web site and your content. You are a true passionate in keeping this up.

  • Do you have any guidance on selecting between 3.4AR and 4.5AR? I do a lot of climbing and a lot of rolling flat riding. I want AR flexibility but I can’t overlook the fact that climbing qualities matter. My brain says 3.4AR, but your overwhelmingly positive review of the 4.5AR makes me second guess that.

    • Tom, depends on what you mean by “a lot”, “climbing” and “flat riding”. May I suggest you check out my post about how to pick the best wheels for you ( to see if you really need climbing wheels or will benefit from deeper wheels or something that is more all-around (including riding “all roads”) like the 4.5 AR but isn’t optimized for any of them. Steve

  • Hello Steve, I’ve thoroughly read your various reviews n wheelsets, both Aero as well as all round and climbing.

    Now having accrued my much desired deep aero sets (WTO 60 and xxx 6)

    So for my all round bike id like an all round wheelset.

    I love the feel and look of the Campagnolo wto, and as such reading your review of the wto33 makes those very interesting.

    Are they in fact so good for all round as you describe? At first you even had a good aero rating…and they are still in the all round category (rather than climbing).

    Having the deeper aero sets already, i thougth this particular 33 could fitin very well both for all round and climbing given your feedback.

    At what point does ‘depth’ provide any form of benefit , 30-40 or 45mm?

    • Hi Erik, Thanks for reading and for your question. That’s a hard question to answer with an absolute depth number as there are so many variables that can affect aero performance. The major determinants of aero performance, of course, are your own cda as determined by your body size and position and that of your bike. And there are many ways to improve aero that cost you less than a wheelset from your helmet to your shoes and include such simple things as shaving your legs and shedding your gloves.

      Likewise, there are ways to ruin whatever aero performance you hope to get from your wheels by using tires that measure any more than about 95% the width of your rims once installed and inflated. And then, while aero is more important than rolling resistance starting at around 12mph/19kph, it really starts to kick in around 18-20mph/29-32kph and its importance rises logarithmically from there. But using a tire with poor rolling resistance relative to others you could use or inflating it beyond where you need to reduce vibrational losses and improve handling, grip, and comfort will also add watts and reduce the speed benefit you hoped to gain by improving aero. Then there are likely significant losses to be recaptured by keeping your drivetrain clean and lubricating the chain better.

      You likely knew all of that from your reading. I repeat it here for those readers of your question who may not have read the aero wheelset reviews or my 2 part post on how to ride faster on your bike.

      As to the wheels themselves, it varies between wheelset profile and manufacturer almost as much as it does between depth. While the conventional wisdom these days is that there’s little aero difference between wheels of the same depth, that may be true for the wheelset makers that put a fair amount of R&D into their product and not so much for others that don’t or merely copy the leading rim profiles. The data isn’t conclusive nor is the way to test (wind tunnel vs. real world, steady state air vs. transient state air, rider on the bike vs wheel alone, same tire on all wheels tested vs only tires that are a certain percentage of the rim width, etc., etc.)

      Since I can’t speak for the aero performance of each wheelset we ride in a quantitative way, my ratings are a subjective measure of how the wheelset holds its speed or maintains its momentum underway. My fellow testers and I do this at different speeds, typically between 20mph and 25mph (32 and 40kph) using benchmark tires, inflation pressures, and other consistent riding and gear methods. It’s subjective, it’s comparative, it’s more like what enthusiasts will experience than pro racers, etc. There are a lot of variables – wind, weather, riders, etc. – it’s not scientific. But, after doing a lot of it for a lot of different wheels, when we notice the difference, we report it that way. I think this is more typical of what enthusiast riders will notice than what a lot of the manufacturer-reported data that says such and such is x% or y% better than the last generation of the wheelset.

      With all that as preamble, my fellow testers and I notice that most 60mm deep wheelsets will hold their speed better than most 50mm deep ones and 50mm more than 40mm ones. But some 50mm wheels will hold as well as 60mm ones. And that’s why we do the ratings.

      Below 40mm and even for a lot of 40mm and even some at 45mm, most don’t hold their speed very well at 20+mph/32+kph. Also, all-around wheels seem to be getting deeper and lighter with 50mm and sub 1500g the current performance benchmark whereas it used to be 45mm and 1500-1600g. The deeper the wheels, the more aero the wheels or the better they hold their momentum, all else (e.g. tire width, pressure, choice, etc.) being equal and not in conflict with aero performance.

      The other thing we’ve noticed is that climbing wheels seem to be getting deeper and deeper climbing wheels are getting lighter without being any more affected by crosswinds despite their added depth.

      And the other, other thing is that some wheels in the mid 50mm depth range are as or more aero than 60mm wheels and as or more “all-around” than 45-50mm all-around wheels. That’s what you’ll find in the reviews. I ride mid 50mmm deep wheels as my all-arounds.

      Unfortunately for the Campy WTO 33, it’s neither as light (or as deep) as most or the better climbing wheels nor as aero as most all-around wheels. It has other attributes that favor it as I wrote about in my review but it doesn’t compare well on many performance criteria against all-around wheels. Crosswinds aren’t an issue for most modern all-around wheels from leading suppliers but the 33mm depth will assuage the concerns of some who do their all-around riding in continuously windy regions. I’ve not had a chance to ride the WTO 45 but I think it would likely compare better to others in the all-around category.

      Hope that helps. Steve

      • Wow , Steve, thank you so much for a very detailed and in depth analytical answer(s).

        I will consider all of the above prior to even consider the need/want for another mid range depth wheelset.

        There are so many variables and it is true, the benefit of a new wheelset may be negated by other not considered aspects….or on flip side, not at all needed if other cycling accessories and aspects are prioritised.

  • Hi Steve

    I’m in the market for a good value wheel set in this category whilst trying not to compromise on the rule of 105 using 28mm tires due to weighing 185lbs and riding in the UK. I also want the wheels to be 50mm deep as I already own some 35mm wheels. This had led me towards the RSL 51 wheels, due to the wide rim width, reasonably low weight and price.

    I’ve noticed however that the Bontrager Aelous 51 Pro wheels look identical to the RSLs except for a slightly slower engagement / heavier hub and type of carbon resulting in about 160g extra weight. They also retail for £1200 instead of £2000 for the RSLs which is a big price difference for what feels like a small performance increase.

    I feel 160g is insignificant for me as a heavier rider who rides on fast / flat rolling terrain with occasional hills. I also feel like the faster engagement of the hub with the dt240 vs dt350 hubs is probably not that significant a difference. Are the Pro version going to be less stiff than the RSLs? Is there anything else I have missed here or are there better options for me that I am not considering?


    • Jamie, I think you’ve got that mostly right. Extra weight comes in the rims (120g) where it matters and hubs (90g) where it doesn’t. Hub engagement is the same and while the DT240 rolls a bit smoother, the DT350 is a bit quieter. Both work fine. Biggest difference likely comes in the carbon which will, in theory (I haven’t tested the Pro) be less stiff and responsive/snappy. But, for the kind of riding you are describing you do, only the potential stiffness difference would matter in transferring your power less efficiently when you do big accelerations.

      The Pro is available US Trek/Bontrager site here for US$1500 but is out of stock on the UK site. Steve

      • Steve

        Thanks for the help!

        I’ve also read your review of the Zipp 404 firecrest wheels and am very tempted by them. My only worry is that weighing in about 180-185 lbs, the recommended tire pressures make it hard to obey the rule of 105.

        It looks like 25mm tires on the front and 28mm at the back would be borderline ok using their pressure calculator as long as I use tires with “standard” rather than “thin” casing whatever that means? Their tool suggests a front tire pressure of 69.1 psi and 63.1 psi rear with these parameters which is below the 73 psi max.

        Alternatively, I could just use the 28mm tires on both (and use a standard casing option) but I expect this would be above the rule of 105 given their external rim width is 27.5mm and probably make it worth sticking with the Bontrager RSL 51 wheels? Did you try 28mm tires on these and see how they measured up?

        Do you have a recommended set of tires to fit around the pressure constraints or do you think I’d just be better off with the RSL 51s?

        I like the idea of the extra depth with the Zipps.


        • Jamie, Don’t overthink it. We’re talking about a few watts here. There are other ways to increase your speed. Buy the wheels you want and the tires that best work with those wheels and your situation. Steve

  • Hi Steve.

    I have recently purchased the RSL 51 and have been struggling a bit in crosswinds. I live in Newcastle uk and is pretty flat, but often I ride along the coast.

    I was thinking perhaps I should have gone with the NSW (353 or 454) but notice the RSl Actually outperform the 454 on your chart in crosswind.

    Do you think the 353 would fair up much better? Would I be giving up much performance on the flat vs RSL 51. The price of the nsw did put me off but ultimately I could stretch to either if it would give me better performance in the wind without sacrificing much else.

    Perhaps I’m just thinking “the grass is always greener” but without the ability to test ride multiple wheel sets you have to take a gamble on something.

    Maybe I just need to embrace the crosswind a bit more as these are my first deeper wheels coming from the stock bontrager 35mm that came on my bike


    • Iain, It’s a tradeoff. A shallower wheelset will typically be less affected by crosswinds but not be as fast on the flats as a deeper one. That’s also our experience with the 353 NSW and RSL 51. In the case of those two wheels, we felt more of a difference in flat terrain speed than crosswind effects. It comes down to deciding which performance aspect is more important to you and whether you can overcome or manage the drawbacks of a given wheelset. Note that if you want a shallower wheelset, you can do so at a price much lower than the 353 NSW which is a solid wheelset but best as a climbing one. Steve

      • Thanks Steve for your time to respond. From your response I am taking that the rsl 51 is probably not hugely worse than the 353 nsw at crosswind. Rolling speed decrease will be more noticeable than crosswind increase?

        If that’s correct. I think I’ll stick with the 51s and as you say and just become more used to how they react. Im sure they are a great wheel and Perhaps it will just turn out to be a gut/initial reaction from moving to the deeper wheel and feeling slightly uncomfortable with how they were moving. I’m sure I’ll get the hang of it and get more confidence over time.

        I could always get a single rsl37 for upfront for anything particularly windy / climbing days.

        • Iain, yes, that’s what we experienced. Changing wheels can take a little getting used to but I expect it won’t take long. Enjoy, Steve

  • As many others have mentioned this an awesome review and extremely helpful, it is greatly appreciated by a lot of enthusiasts such as myself. I just bit the bullet and bought the 4.5 ARs – I’m awaiting shipment and for the snow to melt (it might be a while) before I get a chance to ride on them. I noticed you didn’t mention if any of the tires you tested on these wheels fell into the Rule of 105 (or 102-103 since they are hookless). Reading your review of tubeless tires it seems the Bontrager R3s should put the combo at about 106% assuming they size up the same as when they are mounted on the 3.4 ARs, did you happen to take measurements of the tires you tested with the 4.5 ARs? I most likely wouldn’t notice the difference in watts out on the road but I was curious.

    • Steven F, Cool. That’s a great wheelset and I expect you’ll really enjoy it. Thanks also for the kind words. The best way to show your appreciation is to buy your gear through the top-ranked stores I link you to in the reviews. When you do, some stores will provide a commission that helps me cover the costs of putting out these reviews and keeping the site running.

      As to tires, look at the chart that shows the measurements of several 28mm tires on similar width wheels. Later this winter, I’m planning to update the measurements and analysis based on some research I’ve been doing the last couple of months. Steve

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